Since Alabama introduced the first modern anti-abortion legislation in April 2019, five other states have also passed abortion laws, including Mississippi, Kentucky, Ohio, Georgia, and most recently, Louisiana on May 30, 2019.  This article provides an overview of the history of abortion law in the United States, including major state and federal laws and Supreme Court decisions. Abortion is legal in the United States and its territories, although restrictions and accessibility vary from state to state. Abortion is a controversial and divisive issue in American society, culture, and politics, and since at least 1900, various anti-abortion laws have been put in place in every state. The Democratic Party has generally defended access to abortion, while the Republican Party in general has sought to restrict access to abortion or criminalize abortion.  The Pain-Able Unborn Child Protection Act is a U.S. Congressional bill that prohibits late-term abortions after 20 weeks after fertilization nationwide, because the fetus may experience pain during an abortion at the time of pregnancy and after. The bill was first introduced in Congress in 2013. It was successfully passed by the House of Representatives in 2013, 2015 and 2017, but has yet to pass the Senate.
Opponents of the law reject claims by supporters of the law regarding fetal development, arguing that such a restriction would endanger women`s health. The ACA allows states to completely ban abortion coverage in health insurance plans offered through an exchange. Since the law went into effect, several states have prevented health plans from covering abortions. The ABA also allows providers and facilities to refuse to provide, pay for, or refer abortion services in accordance with federal denial provisions. In 2021, 46 states had similar laws. In 1900, abortion was a crime in every state. Some states have included provisions permitting abortion in certain circumstances, usually to protect the woman`s life or terminate a pregnancy due to rape or incest.  However, abortions continued and became increasingly available. The American Birth Control League was founded in 1921 by Margaret Sanger; it became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1942.   The Hyde Amendment is a federal provision that prohibits the use of federal Medicaid funds to pay for abortion except in cases of rape and incest.
 The provision was in various forms a response to Roe v. Wade and has been regularly linked to annual allowance laws since 1976 and represented the first major legislative success of the pro-life movement. The law requires states to cover abortions under Medicaid in cases of rape, incest and mortal danger. According to a 2022 report by the National Abortion Federation, anti-abortion extremists have murdered 11 people since 1977, and patients, providers, and volunteers have been subjected to 42 bombings, 196 arson cases, 491 attacks, and thousands of incidents of criminal activity. In medical parlance, « abortion » can refer to a miscarriage or abortion until the fetus is viable. After viability, doctors call an abortion an « abortion. » Today, as state and federal laws, insurance changes, and clinic closures have made it increasingly difficult to obtain an abortion, a growing movement is dedicated to supporting pregnant women who are learning how to handle an abortion on their own. In 2000, cases of rape or incest accounted for 1 per cent of abortions.  By 2022, 16 states will fund abortion services on the same terms as other pregnancy-related health services, meaning those states will use their own funds to cover abortion, in addition to what the Hyde Amendment allows.
Access to abortion is therefore fundamentally linked to the protection and respect of the human rights of women, girls and other pregnant women, and thus to social and gender equality. Immediately after taking office, Trump reinstated and expanded the global gag rule, a policy that prevents any group receiving U.S. funding from performing abortions or even discussing abortions with its patients. In low-income countries, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, including unsafe abortions, are a leading cause of death among young women aged 15 to 19. Every year, at least 2 million women undergo unsafe abortions and tens of thousands die from them. U.S. policies, such as the Global Gag Rule, are complicit in these deaths, requiring health care providers to withhold the vital information and services women need to make safe and informed decisions about their family`s size and timing. Here are the basic facts about abortion that everyone should know. The abortion verdict no one knew: Georgia`s 20-week ban The issue of minors and abortion is regulated at the state level, and 37 states require some parental involvement, either in the form of parental consent or parental notification. In some situations, parenting restrictions may be overturned by a court.
 Mandatory waiting periods, mandatory ultrasounds and mandatory counselling are common abortion regulations. Abortion laws are generally stricter in conservative southern states than in other parts of the country. A number of other factors likely played a role in the rise of anti-abortion laws. Doctors, who were the main proponents of laws criminalizing abortion, appear to have been motivated, at least in part, by advances in medical knowledge. Science had discovered that conception initiated a more or less continuous process of development that would produce a new human being if not interrupted. It has been found that speeding up the pregnancy process is no more or less crucial than any other stage. Many doctors have come to the conclusion that if society considers it unjustified to terminate pregnancy after the acceleration of the fetus and if acceleration is a relatively small step in the pregnancy process, it is just as wrong to terminate a pregnancy before acceleration as after acceleration.  Ideologically, the Hippocratic Oath and the medical mentality of the time, defending the absolute value of human life, played an important role in shaping opinion on abortion.  Doctors have also advocated anti-abortion laws for practical reasons.